Mr. Kirby's Website

You are not logged in. Would you like to login or register?

August 15, 2015 8:33 am  #1

Vocab: List for the entire year

    Chapter 1 Vocab – Cultural Geography Introduction

 1. absolute location – the exact location of something, marked on a local level with an address or a global level with latitude and longitude.
 2. contagious diffusion – when an idea spreads quickly regardless of social class, economic position or power, spreading similar to how a disease spreads by contact
 3. core-periphery – a concept based on the tendency of formal and functional regions to have a center (or core) where defining traits are most pure and evident or functions are headquartered and a tributary (or periphery) area which displays fewer of the defining traits
 4. corn belt – the area of the United States where corn is grown; it sparks debate between geographers as to whether it is a formal or functional region
 5. culture – the way of life for an area, including their speech, ideology, behavior, technology, government and even the types of jobs they typically do
 6. distance decay – the principle that states that as people get further away from the hearth, then the culture spread from the hearth becomes less relevant to them
 7. environmental determinism – the theory that the climate and the physical landscape of an area greatly affect the behavior and culture of the people living there
 8. expansion diffusion – spreading an idea outward from contact with the idea (this includes contagious, hierarchical and stimulus diffusion)
 9. formal region – a region that has at least one similar physical or cultural trait that unifies it, often language or religion. They have no set borders, as these cultures often overlap in border zones.
10. functional region (nodal region) – an area with certain political, economic or social activity that unifies it, which contains at least one node that is the center of activity and connects it to the market area around it.
11. geographic information system (GIS) – a collection of computer hardware and software that permits spatial data to be collected, recorded, stored, retrieved, manipulated, analyzed, and displayed to the user.
12. Global Positioning System (GPS) – satellite-based system for determining the absolute location of places or geographic features.
13. globalization – making something worldwide in scope; actions that involve the entire world
14. hierarchical diffusion – when an idea travels in rank order from areas of higher power to areas of lower power
15. independent invention – two distinct people/groups come up with approximately the same idea around the same time without communication
16. perceptual (vernacular) region – an area defined by a person’s beliefs or feelings, created by an individual’s own associations and attachment to the area, which may be defined by prejudices or personal thoughts, and the borders vary from person to person
17. placelessness – the complete removal of sense of place through globalization and the removal the uniqueness of individual places
18. possibilism – theory that states that physical geography can limit the possibilities of a culture but it doesn’t control them
19. relative location – giving a location by describing the other things that it is near and not giving an exact location with coordinates and addresses
20. relocation diffusion – the spread of an idea by people migrating and moving with the idea
21. Rust Belt – an area straddling the Midwestern and Northeastern United states plus small parts of the Upper South in which local economies traditionally specialized in large scale manufacturing
22. sense of place – the feeling of belonging to a place because its unique traits, especially when it is part of your own history; when a location takes on a unique identity in people’s minds
23. stimulus diffusion – where an idea is not completely accepted because of barriers, but a different form of the idea may be
24. topophilia – literally love of place; it is often used to describe people with a strong sense of place
25. uneven development – the tendency for industry to develop in a core-periphery pattern, helping to enrich the core at the expense of the periphery; in later developments this term has been applied in reverse as the suburbs gain wealth at the expense of the abandoned inner city     

Chapter 2 Vocab – Maps & Folk and Popular Culture

 1. cartogram map – a type of thematic maps that transforms space such that the political unit with the greatest value for some type of data is represented by the largest relative area
 2. chloropleth map – a thematic map that uses tones or colors to represent spatial data as average values per unit data
 3. custom – the frequent repetition of an act to the point that it becomes completely characteristic of the group performing the act
 4. distortion – the altering of reality that takes place when spherical objects like globes are made into flat maps; the four things altered are the shape, distance, relative size, and direction of places on maps
 5. dot map – thematic maps that use points to show the precise locations of specific observations or occurrences, such as crimes, car accidents, or births
 6. folk culture – culture traditionally practiced by small homogeneous groups that live in isolation
 7. Gall-Peters map projection - a cylindrical map projection that attempts to retain the accurate sizes of all the world's landmasses
 8. graduated symbol map – uses different size dots to represent different amounts
 9. habit – a repetitive act performed by a particular individual
10. hearth – the original source of something
11. isoline map – map line that connects points of equal or very similar values.
12. material culture – (Tangible artifacts) Tools, food, clothing, furniture
13. Mercator map projection – these maps show true direction and land shapes fairly accurately, but not size or distance as areas that are located far from the equator, like Alaska or Greenland, are quite distorted on this type of map, making them appear larger than they are
14. nonmaterial culture – Mental based (language, religion) and Social based (religious organizations, family structure) elements of culture
15. polar projection – also called Azimuthal, it is a map which shows true compass directions; longitude lines are straight and latitude lines are circles; distorts shape and size more toward the outer edges
16. pop culture – culture found in large heterogeneous societies where people share culture despite different backgrounds
17. qualitative data – data associated with more humanistic approach to geography, often collected through interviews, empirical observations, or interpretation of documents.
18. quantitative data – data associated with mathematical models and statistical techniques used to analyze spatial location and association.
19. reference maps – a map type that shows information centered on a particular place, making it useful for finding landmarks and for navigating.
20. region – an area distinguished by a unique combination of trends or features
21. Robinson map projection – projection that attempts to balance several possible projection errors; it does not maintain completely accurate area, shape, distance, or direction, but it minimizes errors in each
22. scale – how much of the area are we showing and at what size
23. subculture – a group with norms, values and customs that differentiate from the dominant culture to which they belong
24. taboo – a restriction on behavior imposed by a social custom
25. thematic maps – a type of map that displays one or more variables-such as population, or income level-within a specific area.     

Chapter 3 Vocab – Population

 1. age-sex pyramids – two-sided vertical bar graphs that show what percentages of people in certain age groups and of each sex make up a population
 2. agricultural density – the ratio of the number of farmers to the amount of arable land
 3. anti-natalist – someone or something that discourages population growth, especially discouraging large families and multiple births
 4. arable land – land that can be used for agriculture
 5. arithmetic density – the number of people per unit area of land
 6. brain drain – when the most educated people of a country migrate elsewhere for “better” life
 7. carrying capacity – the number of people that can be supported by the amount food, water and other resources in the area
 8. chain migration – more people related socially to the migrant will also migrate
 9. Cornucopian Theory – a theory that suggests human invention and innovation will help expand food supply (opposed to Malthus’ theories)
10. Crude Birthrate (CBR)  – the amount of births per year per 1000 people in population
11. Crude Death Rate (CDR) – the amount of deaths per year per 1000 people in population
12. Demographic Transition Model (DTM) – a model describes change over time as a country develops into an industrialized economic system
13. dependency ratio – the percent of people in non-working ages (under 15 or over 65) divided by the number of working age people (15-65)
14. doubling time – the time required for a population to double in size.
15. The Epidemiological Transition Model – demonstrates how less developed countries tend to  be more likely to die from communicable diseases (flu, tuberculosis, rabies, measles, HIV/AIDS), while more developed countries tend to be more likely to die from lifestyle related chronic diseases (diabetes, obesity, heart disease, hypertension)
16. forced migration – migration in which the individual or group migrating have no say about where they are going or when
17. Infant Mortality Rate (IMR) – the total number of deaths in a year of infants under the age of 1 for every 1000 people
18. migration – a permanent move to a new location
19. Neo-Malthusians – people who believe in a set of doctrines derived from Thomas Malthus's theory that limited resources keep populations in check and reduce economic growth
20. persecution – hostility and ill-treatment, especially because of race or political or religious beliefs
21. population density – a measure of the amount of people per a unit area
22. pronatalist – having to do with more babies being born, high birth rates, and the encouragement of large families
23. physiological density – the number of people per unit of arable land
24. pull factor – a positive aspect of somewhere else that makes you want to go there
25. push factor – a negative aspect of where you are that causes you to leave
26. Rate of Natural Increase (RNI) or Natural Increase Rate (NIR) – the percentage growth of a population in a year, computed as the crude birth rate minus the crude death rate.
27. refugee – an individual that leaves his/her homeland to avoid persecution or out of concern for their own personal safety
28. remittance – when a migrant worker sends money back to their home family
29. replacement rate – the number of children necessary to maintain the current population
30. Total Fertility Rate (TFR) – the number of children the average woman will bear during her reproductive lifetime (15-44); having a sustained one of lower than 2.1 will cause a decrease in population     

Chapter 4 Vocab – Language

 1. bilingualism – the ability to speak two languages fluently
 2. contiguous – touching; in contact
 3. creole language – a pidgin language that has become the native language for a group of people
 4. dead language – language not used for normal, everyday use.
 5. dialect – a regional variation of a language
 6. endangered Language – a language at risk of becoming extinct as its speakers die or shift to speaking another language
 7. extinct Language – a language without any speakers (which differs from a dead language which are still known and used is special contexts like Latin)
 8. Germanic language branch– languages that reflect the expansion of peoples out of Northern Europe to the west and south and includes English and Celtic
 9. hyperbole – an exaggeration in order to make a point
10. Indo-European language family–  family of languages that first spread throughout Europe and many parts of South Asia, and later to every corner of the globe as a result of colonization; roughly 48 percent of the people in the world speak a language in this family
11. isogloss – the border of usage of an individual word or pronunciation
12. language barrier – an expression used to indicate the difficulty people face when they have no language in common to attempt to communicate with each other
13. language convergence – where two languages become more like each through a prolonged exposure to each other
14. Language diffusion – the movement of languages though migration    
15. language families – groups of languages with a common ancestor
16. lingua franca – a language mutually understood and commonly used in trade by people who have different native languages
17. literary tradition – a language that is written as well as spoken
18. official language – the language adopted for use by the government for conducting business and publishing documents
19. pidgin language – language created when two or more languages combine in a simplified manner
20. Romance language branch – languages that lie in the areas that were once controlled by the Roman Empire that were not subsequently overwhelmed; examples include Spanish, French, Italian and Romanian
21. Sabir – the original Lingua Franca, it was a pidgin language spoken by traders in the Mediterranean made up of parts of at least five languages
22. Sino-Tibetan language family – the most important Asian language family, and covers nearly all of Southeastern Asia and most of China; with all Mandarin, Japanese and Cantonese speakers included, it represents about 25 percent of the world’s population
23. slang – words and phrases that are not part of a standard recognized vocabulary for a given language that are used anyway and understood by some of its speakers
24. Spanglish – combination of Spanish and English spoken by many Hispanic Americans
25. toponym – a place name given to certain features on the land like settlements or terrain features or streams   

 Chapter 5 Vocab – Race & Ethnicity

 1. acculturation – people change some of their cultural habits when they arrive in their new culture, but maintain other traditions
 2. antithesis – the direct opposite
 3. apartheid – laws (no longer in effect) in South Africa that physically separated different races into different geographical areas
 4. archaic – out of date; antiquated
 5. assimilation – people completely abandon their old culture and adopt the culture of their new country
 6. Berlin Conference – held in 1885 to set ground rules for splitting Africa up, which included opening the major rivers up to trade, establishing regions of control and abolishing slavery
 7. colonialism – the establishment, exploitation, acquisition and expansion of colonies in one territory by people from another territory or country
 8. Columbia exchange – the exchange of plants, animals, diseases, and technologies between the Americas and the rest of the world following the discovery of the New World
 9. disamenity zones (sectors) – the very poorest parts of cities that in extreme cases are not connected to regular city services and are controlled by gangs and drug lords.
10. environmental racism – the lack of concern about environmental regulations in or even deliberate contamination of areas where ethnic and racial minorities live
11. ethnic cleansing – process in which more powerful ethnic group forcibly removes a less powerful one in order to create an ethnically homogeneous region.
12. ethnic enclaves – small areas of cities inhabited by ethnic minority groups
13. ethnic islands – small, usually rural ethnic enclaves who set themselves apart from the surrounding majority
14. ethnic neighborhood – an ethnic enclave where residents live voluntarily (or by force in the case of ghettos) separated by race, religion or ethnicity
15. ethnicity – dividing people based on a real or presumed cultural heritage and ancestry
16. imperialism – the forceful extension of a nation’s authority by territorial conquest or by establishing economic or political domination of other nations
17. ostracize – to exclude, by general consent, from society, friendship, conversation, privileges
18. race – dividing people by physical characteristics, which include color and facial structure
19. sanitation – conditions relating to public health, especially the provision of clean drinking water and adequate sewage disposal
20. Scramble for Africa – a rush by European powers in the 1800s to grab as much territory in Africa as possible with no regard for ethnic boundaries
21. self-determination – concept that ethnicities have the right to govern themselves
22. shatter belt region – an area of instability between regions with opposing political and cultural values
23. syncretism – the blending of beliefs and practices between different cultures to create something new
24. time-space compression – The reduction in the time it takes to diffuse something to a distant place, as a result of improved communications and transportation systems
25. triangular trade – a practice, primarily during the 18th century, in which Europeans ships transported slaves from Africa to the Caribbean, molasses from the Caribbean to Europe and manufactured goods from Europe to Africa   

 Chapter 6 Vocab – Political Geography

 1. ASEAN – an organization of countries in southeast Asia set up to promote cultural, economic and political development in the region; officially formed in 1967 with the signing of the Bangkok Declaration.
 2. autonomous region – an area of a country that has a degree of freedom from an external authority; typically geographically distant from the country, or to be populated by a national minority
 3. balkanization – the process of a state fragmenting and dividing into several states
 4. centrifugal force – a force that divides a state apart
 5. centripetal force – a force that hold a state together
 6. compact state – a state where the center of the state is approximately equal distance from all edges of the country
 7. elongated state – a state with a long, narrow shape
 8. European Union (EU) – a politico-economic union of 28 member states that are located primarily in Europe, operating through a system of supranational institutions and intergovernmental negotiated decisions by the member states.
 9. federal state – an internal organization of a state that gives most of the power to the local government
10. fragmented state – a state that is separated into different pieces; often happens with island nations, but can also occur when a piece of a country is separated from the rest of the country by another country
11. gerrymandering – re-drawing political districts to favor one political party
12. heartland theory – hypothesis proposed by Halford Mckinder that held that any political power based in the heart of Eurasia could gain enough strength to eventually dominate the world
13. Less Developed Country (LDC) – a country that is a relatively early stage in the process of economic development
14. More Developed Country (MDC) – a country that has progressed relatively far when it comes to development
15. NAFTA – a free trade zone created in 1994 between the United States, Canada and Mexico
16. nation – a unified group of people that have a shared past and a common future
17. nation-state – when a state is composed almost entirely of one nation
18. NATO – an intergovernmental military alliance between several North American and European states that constitutes a system of collective defense whereby its member states agree to mutual defense in response to an attack by any external party.
19. perforated state – this is a state with a hole in the middle of it, usually the territory of another country
20. prorupted state – a state where most of the state is a uniform shape, but there is one section that extends thinly in a direction, usually to gain access to the sea or to something valuable
21. Ratzel organic theory – the view that states resemble biological organisms with life cycles that include stages of youth, maturity, and old age
22. regionalism – loyalty to the interests of a particular region
23. rimland theory – Nicholas Spykman's theory that the domination of the coastal fringes of Eurasia would provided the base for world conquest.
24. sovereignty - the supreme authority of a state over its own affairs, free from control by other states
25. state – an area organized into a political unit and ruled by an established government with control over its internal and foreign affairs
26. stateless nation – when a nation is not able to have a state of its own anywhere, instead being spread out over several states
27. supranationalism – three or more countries working together for a common goal
28. territoriality – a term associated with nonverbal communication that refers to how people use space to communicate ownership or occupancy of areas and possessions.
29. unitary state – an internal organization of a state that gives most of the power to the central government
30. United Nations (UN) – an international organization formed in 1945 to increase political and economic cooperation among member countries; it works on economic and social development programs, improving human rights and reducing global conflicts, and is the largest supranational organization in the world     

Chapter 7 Vocab – Religion

 1. animism – religion that believes that souls exist not only in humans but also animals, plants, rocks, natural phenomena such as thunder, geographic features like mountains and rivers, and other entities of the natural environment
 2. Borchert’s epochs of urban growth – theory that American cities have undergone five major epochs, or periods, of development shaped by the dominant forms of transportation and communication at the time. These include sail wagon epoch (1790-1830), steel rail epoch (1870-1920), auto-air-amenity epoch (1920-1970), and satellite-electronic-jet propulsion and high-technology epoch (1970-present).
 3. caste – the class or distinct hereditary order into which a Hindu is assigned according to religious law
 4. Catholic – one of the three major branches of Christianity, and by far the largest; centered in Rome, it is the predominant branch of Christianity for Latin America, Africa, France, Ireland, Italy, Spain and Portugal.
 5. equinox – day of the year (occurring twice, once in autumn and once in spring) when the amount of day and amount of night are exactly equal.
 6. ethnic religion – a religion tied to a specific place and people where people are not trying to actively convert, spread through relocation diffusion (Hinduism, Chinese folk religion)
 7. fundamentalism – the demand to return to the basic doctrines of a religion
 8. global financial crisis – an economic crisis that occurred in 2007-2008, which began with a collapse of the subprime mortgage market in the United States in 2007 and led to a worldwide banking crisis after the collapse of Lehman Brothers in 2008; it is a strong example of how tied together the world economy is in the modern era
 9. interdependence – the mutual reliance between two or more groups
10. monotheism – the belief in one god
11. Eastern Orthodox – one of the three branches of Christianity, centered for years in Constantinople before that city’s capture by the Muslims in 1453; it is still prevalent in Eastern Europe, Greece and Russia
12. pilgrimage – a journey to a place considered sacred for religious purposes
13. polytheism – the belief in many gods
14. Protestant – the third branch of Christianity, formed much later than the other two during the Reformation led by Martin Luther in the 16th century; it is split into many denominations including Baptist, Anglican, Methodist, Presbyterian and Lutheran and is prevalent in the United States, United Kingdom, Germany and the Netherlands
15. religious branch – a large fundamental division in a religion
16. religious denomination – a division of a branch of a religion that unites a number of local congregations in a single legal and administrative body
17. religious sect – a relatively small group that has broken away from an established religion
18. sacred space – an area recognized by one or more religious groups as worthy of devotion, loyalty, esteem or fear to the extent that it is sought out, avoided, inaccessible to the nonbeliever, and/or removed from economic use.
19. secularism – the indifference to or rejection of organized religion and its ideas
20. sharia law – a legal framework, derived from the religious interpretation of Islamic texts, that governs almost all aspects of public life, and some aspects of private life, for Muslims living under this system
21. Shi’a – the smaller of the to main branches of Islam; Persian variation; believe in the infallibility and divine right to authority of the Imams, descendants of Ali
22. solstice – time when the sun is furthest from the equator, making the greatest amount of variance between the amount of day and the amount of night
23. Sunni – the larger of the to main branches of Islam; orthodox/traditionalist; believe in the effectiveness of family and community in the solution of life's problems; accept traditions of Muhammad as authoritative, and see all of the first four caliphs as equal, not just the fourth caliph Ali
24. U.N. Millennium Development Goals – a declaration with the goal of improving the living conditions of people in the least developed countries. The goals were: (1) eradicate extreme poverty and hunger, (2) achieve universal primary education, (3) promote gender equality and empower women, (4) reduce child mortality, (5) improve maternal health, (6) combat HIV/AIDS, malaria, and other diseases, (7) ensure environmental sustainability, (8) develop a global partnership for development.
25. universalizing religion – religion that actively converts and spread as they believe their belief systems are universal in appeal and meant for everyone (Christianity, Islam, Buddhism)   

 Chapter 8 Vocab – Agriculture

 1. agribusiness – highly mechanized, large-scale farming, usually under corporate ownership.
 2. climate – the composite or generally prevailing weather conditions of a region
 3. commercial agriculture – a farming system that grows crops primarily for sale rather than for consumption on the farm
 4. desertification – the development of desert-like conditions from over working of the land
 5. economies of scale – cost advantages to manufacturers that accrue from high-volume production, since the average cost of production falls with increasing output
 6. enclosure movement – the process of consolidating small landholdings into a smaller number of larger farms in England during the 18th century
 7. fair trade – a movement to move more of the money paid for products in great demand that are often grown in LDCS (like coffee, bananas, sugar and cocoa) to the places where they are produced
 8. feedlot – a factorylike farm devoted to livestock feeding or dairying; typically all feed is imported and no crops are grown on the farm
 9. Genetically Modified Organism (GMO) – crops that carry new traits that have been inserted through advanced genetic engineering methods
10. Green Revolution – large increase in crop production in developing countries by using pesticides, fertilizers and high-yield crops
11. intensive agriculture – a form of subsistence agriculture in which farmers must expend a relatively large amount of effort to produce the maximum feasible yield from a parcel of land
12. intercropping (intertillage) – the practice of growing two or more different types of crops in the same field at the same time.
13. local-food movement – an attempt to get more people to buy from local producers to slow down the rate of globalization of the food market
14. market gardening (truck farming) – farming devoted to specialized nontropical fruit, vegetable or vine crops for sale rather than consumption
15. Mediterranean agriculture – specialized farming that occurs only in areas where the dry summer Mediterranean climate prevails (grapes, olives, figs, citrus, fruits, dates, et. al)
16. milkshed – the area surrounding a city from which milk can be supplied before spoiling
17. organic agriculture  – a movement toward all natural foods that are not created using GMOs, chemicals, fertilizers or pesticides, that are grown naturally
18. innovation – new ideas or ways to do something
19. pastoral nomadism – grazing animals on wide spaces (usually in arid regions)
20. plantation agriculture – production system based on a large estate owned by an individual, family, or corporation and organized to produce a cash crop; Almost all were established within the tropics
21. ranching – the raising of domesticated animals for the produciton of meat and byproducts (leather, wool)
22. shifting cultivation – a three stage system of agriculture, which starts (1) with the slashing and burning of a field, continues (2) with planting on that field for a short time, and then (3) moves on to a new field, leaving the first field fallow again
23. subsistence agriculture – a farming system that grows crops mainly for consumption by farmers and their families
24. sustainable agriculture – farming methods that preserve long-term productivity of land and minimize pollution, typically by rotating soil-restoring crops with cash crops and reducing inputs of fertilizer and pesticides.
25. terrace farming – a technique of growing crops in step-like fields cut into hillsides or mountain slopes

Chapter 9 Vocab – Industry and Services

 1. bulk-gaining industry – industry where the end product weighs more than the raw materials, making it a good idea to locate the factory closer to where the product is being sold
 2. bulk-reducing industry – industry where the end product weighs less than the raw materials, making it a good idea to locate the factory closer to where the raw materials are being acquired
 3. commodity chain – the path a commodity travels from producers to consumers
 4. cottage industry – manufacturing based in homes rather than in a factory
 5. dependency theory – a theory that states that the powerful countries control the economic development of less powerful areas
 6. devolution – the process of a country becoming less powerful
 7. Export Processing Zone (EPZ) or Free Trade Zone – an area where the government creates specialized policies and desirable investment/manufacturing conditions to attract businesses (Special Economic Zones or SEZs are China’s version of this
 8. ecotourism – responsible travel that does not harm ecosystems or the well-being of local people
 9. footloose industries – industries where the transportation cost of the product is not significant to the placement of the industry
10. GNI per capita – the monetary worth of what is produced within a country plus income received from investments outside the country divided by the number of people in a country
11. Human Developmental Index (HDI) – indicator of level of development for each country combining income, education and life expectancy, compiled by the United Nations
12. industrialization – the process by which a society moves from subsistence agriculture toward mass production based on machinery and industry
13. irredentism – any political or popular movement intended to reclaim and reoccupy an area that the movement's members consider "lost" or "unredeemed"
14. labor-intensive industry – an industry where labor costs make up a high percentage of total expenses
15. literacy rate – the percentage of a country’s people that can read or write
16. maquiladora – a foreign-owned manufacturing plant that gets duty-free materials to assemble/process then export, often on the U.S./Mexico Border
17. multinational corporation (MNC) – owner of offices and/or production facilities in one or more countries other than its country of origin
18. offshoring – moving business activity to an international location to lessen tax burden
19. outsourcing – transferring  industrial processes to another firm to reduce labor costs
20. platform corporations – corporations where the manufacturing component has been removed from the core activities of research and development (R&D), retail, marketing and distribution
21. primary sector – section of jobs concerned with taking things directly from the ground
22. quaternary sector – section of jobs concerned with processing of info and finances
23. quinary sector – section of jobs concerned with specialized or technical knowledge
24. Research triangle – a research complex in central North Carolina between Durham, Raleigh, and Chapel Hill that was created in the 1950s by Duke, UNC Chapel Hill, and NC State
25. renewable resource – a resource that can be replenished naturally at a rate sufficient to balance its depletion by human use
26. secondary sector – section of jobs concerned with refinement of the products taken from the ground
27. Silicon Valley – a nickname for the Southern part of San Francisco Bay Area in the northern California, originally referring to the concentration of microchip innovators and manufacturers, but eventually referring to the concentration of all types of high-tech businesses
28. Sun Belt – an area of warmer weather states in the South that made up one of the first destination for factory jobs from the North because of less union activities
29. tertiary sector – section of jobs concerned with services related to products
30. transnational Corporation (TNC) – a multinational corporation that is borderless with no home country   

 Chapter 10 Vocab – Urbanization

 1. Central Business District (CBD) – the area of a city where retail and office activities are clustered
 2. central place theory – a theory that attempts to explain the reasons behind the distribution patterns, size and number of cities and towns around the world, that shows that people go short distances for basic needs but are willing to travel farther for luxury items
 3. city – composed of a larger settlement in the tens and hundreds of thousands, which has significant impacts on surrounding landscape
 4. comparative advantage – the ability of an individual or group to carry out a particular economic activity (such as making a specific product) more efficiently than another activity
 5. complementary advantage – involves identifying countries (or parties or companies) where each has a comparative advantage over complementary areas of production - so that partnering will bring both economic benefits.
 6. hamlet – composed of a small rural settlement or small component of a larger settlement or municipality; typically unincorporated with little to no significance
 7. high order goods – luxuries (none essential items that are purchased infrequently)
 8. hinterland (market area) – the area around a central place, from which people are attracted to use the place’s goods and services
 9. infrastructure – the underlying framework of services and amenities needed to facilitate productive activity
10. low order goods – necessities (cheap products that are purchased frequently)
11. megacity – a particularly large urban center, one with a population over 10 million
12. primate city – a city that has a population more than two times as large as the second largest city
13. range – the maximum distance a person will travel to purchase a good or service
14. rank-size rule – a pattern of settlements in a country, such that the nth largest settlement is 1/n of the population of the largest settlement
15. resource – something that is useful to people, is socially acceptable to use and is able to be accessed
16. service – any activity that fulfills a human want or need in exchange for money
17. site – has to do with the physical characteristics that lead to settling a city (quality of soil, building materials available, water supply, climate, ability to defend, natural shelter)
18. situation – has to do with a city’s relation to other settlements and cities around the city, as well as physical features and how well a city with go
19. squatter settlement – an area within a city in a less developed country in which people illegally establish residences on land that they do not own or rent and erect homemade structures
20. threshold – the minimum number of people needed to support a central place
21. town – composed of a larger settlement that has thousands of residents with a significance that is easily noticeable
22. urban – having to do with cities
23. urban footprint – the total impact of urban areas on the natural environment
24. village – composed of a clustered human settlement of hundreds to a few thousands with a local significance
25. world city (global city)  – a city that is a control center of the global economy

    Chapter 11 Vocab – Inside the City

 1. absolute poverty – living on less than $1 a day
 2. agglomeration – the clustering of industries in cities and compact industrial areas in order to share infrastructure and markets
 3. blockbusting – when Realtors sell property to minorities, therefore encouraging racist whites in the neighborhood to sell their homes because the neighborhood was going “downhill” (the Realtors overcharged blacks and bought cheap from fleeing whites)
 4. brownfield – abandoned areas that have the potential to have toxic or harmful pollutants in them such as former gas stations
 5. concentric zone model  – a model of the internal structure of cities in which social groups are spatially arranged in a series of rings, typically with the central business district in the middle, with the poor near the center and the rich further away
 6. edge city – business, shopping and entertainment center located outside of a traditional city
 7. equal pay – the concept of women earning the same salary and wages as men for the same jobs and tasks in the workforce
 8. galactic city model (peripheral model) – model that represents distinct decentralization of the commercial urban landscape as the economy has to be transitioned to services as the leading form of production
 9. Gender Empowerment Index (GEM) – compares the ability of women and men to participate in economic and political decision making.
10. gentrification – the displacement of lower-income residents by higher-income residents as buildings in deteriorated areas of city centers are restored
11. Gini coefficient – a measure of statistical dispersion intended to represent the income distribution of a nation's residents, and is the most commonly used measure of inequality.
12. gravity model – model that shows that interaction between locations is proportional to the multiplication of the two populations divided by the distance between them
13. greenbelt – a ring of land maintained as parks, agriculture, or other types of open space to limit the sprawl of an urban area.
14. homelessness – a temporary or permanent condition of not having a legal home address
15. Hotelling  model – model that deals with locational interdependence; the location of industries can't be understood without reference to the location of other industries of like kind.
16. Latin American City model – Combines elements of Latin American culture and globalization by combining radial sectors and concentric zones, including a thriving CBD with a commercial spine; quality of houses decreases as one moves outward away from the CBD
17. megalopolis – a large urban region formed as several urban areas spread and merge
18. microloan – very small loan given to impoverished borrowers who typically lack collateral, steady employment and a verifiable credit history; it is designed not only to support entrepreneurship and alleviate poverty, but also in many cases to empower women and uplift entire communities by extension
19. new urbanism – a counter to urban sprawl; development, urban revitalization, and suburban reforms that create walkable neighborhoods with a diversity of housing and jobs.
20. redlining -- denying people of certain races/ethnicities loans within particular areas
21. relative poverty – poor compared to others in your country
22. sector model – model that focuses on residential patterns explaining where the wealthy in a city choose to live; the city grows outward from the center, so a low-rent area could extend all the way from the CBD to the city's outer edge, creating zones which are shaped like pieces of a pie.
23. shantytowns – unplanned slum developments on the margins of cities, dominated by crude dwellings and shelters made from scrap materials
24. slow-growth cities – urban communities where the planners have put into place smart growth initiatives to decrease the rate at which the city grows horizontally to avoid the adverse affects of sprawl
25. suburbanization – the growth of areas on the outskirts of an urban area
26. underclass – a group in society prevented from participating in the material benefits of a more developed society because of a variety of social and economic characteristics
27. urban morphology – the form and structure of cities, including street patterns, building sizes and shapes, architecture, and density
28. urban sprawl – rural acres lost as an urbanized area spreads outward over time
29. walkable-mixed use – development that combines housing and businesses in one area, and tries to limit the necessity of cars, often with bike paths and the natural closeness of having everything in one place
30. zones of abandonment – areas that have been deserted in a city for economic or environmental reasons


April 23, 2019 9:25 am  #2

Re: Vocab: List for the entire year

I like that resolution, I might try that too,

Suggestions I will add:

- Upside down
- Water
- Shiny


May 2, 2021 5:01 pm  #3

Re: Vocab: List for the entire year

I just got my Dell mini 9 mainly for cramster and had the same problem.  I found that Operas browser loads scroll bars on the solutions.  I sucks but it works.


May 31, 2021 9:43 am  #4

Re: Vocab: List for the entire year

Hi, Im becoming more and more impressed by the EU hypothesis regarding cosmic magnetic fields, planet and asteroid formation, and the evidence for Velikovskys worlds in collision.

But what are some of the enormous practical ramifications for daily life on Earth? I gather EU is Climate Skeptic for example.

Links to relevant threads would be appreciated.



Board footera


Powered by Boardhost. Create a Free Forum

All makeup tests given in the morning between 7:45-8:30